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Megalithic constructions

Megaron. Medallion

Mezzanine (it. mezzanino – house)

The upper or superstructure over the Central part of a house. Often has a balcony. In the XIX century, became widespread in low-rise construction in Russia.

Megalithic constructions, megaliths (gr. megas – great, lithos – stone)

Archaeological monuments, built of blocks of wild or grubovato stone. Megaliths belong to the menhirs – the vertically dug stone pillars; CROMLECHS – stone alleys; DOLMENS – tombs, stone boxes, covered galleries. Megalithic constructions are widely spread in different countries of the world, in particular, in Siberia, in the Ukraine, in Crimea, in particular in the Caucasus, where there are all kinds of megalithic structures. Continue reading

The Stained Glass Windows Of Chartres

To refer to a mosaic of painted window glass, called stained glass Windows we have, in European languages there is no single form and definite content to the term. When naming these works (for example: stained glass windows, painted glass in English; Glasgemalde – in German) descriptive concepts are not accidental. Their meaning indicates that the production of stained glass as an independent type of decorative art appeared in relatively recent historical time. And only the French term “vitrail”, and from which comes our name “stained glass”, is based on the Latin word “vitrum”, pointing to the history of this art form.

The first information about the use of glass in the decoration of public buildings we find in the treatise of Pliny the Elder “Naturalis historia”. Detail in the short history of the art of making pavimento (typesetting sexes, which are based on paintings), Pliny notes that in his day, that is not earlier than the last quarter of the first century BC “driven out of the land pavimenti moved to the vaults of glass”. Later in the literature there are only a few mentions of using coloured glass in window frames. They belong to the IV-VII centuries and come from Byzantium. Continue reading

The history of the treatment facilities and Sewerage

What is sewage? If we consider specifically, this underground channels, collected in the system, which are collected from the streets of rainwater and waste water of houses. Seems very simple, somewhat poetic and not at all interesting. However, the sewer system has a history.

The science of archeology helps us to learn how our ancestors lived than interested in how it worked, and, of course, how to get rid of waste. For example, during the excavations of the Greek city of Ephesus (present-day Turkey), near the Emperor’s Palace, shrines, temples, wealthy homes of the priests was found a public toilet! Its decoration was surprised by its richness and convenience. It was a high wall, behind which you can hide from prying eyes of passers-by. Here there was a urinal made of marble, and behind them was the groove-draining, lockable visor. It led to an underground reservoir, which, as you might guess, cleaned as necessary. Continue reading

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The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that, "despite the efforts of generations of scientists, the dolmens are still understudied monuments" (markovin V. I.). The dolmens are of…

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What could be more exciting than exploring the world
What could be more exciting than exploring the world: to gradually discover new countries, their culture, manners and customs, to admire the beauty of nature or just relax on the…

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Waterworks of Ancient Plyos
Ivanovo Institute of civil engineering The formation of river flow occurs in a specific physical-geographical environment, and the regime of rivers respond to all meteorological and hydrological processes within a…

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