The social structure of the societies of the Ancient world
The social structure of the societies of the Ancient world. – History section, the history of the Social Structure of the Ancient East. Eastern Society Was Strictly.
The social structure of the Ancient East. Eastern society was strictly hierarchical, and organized according to the type of the pyramid. The top of the pyramid was occupied by the ruler, sanctified by the gods with power. It was located below know, priests, high officials. Numerous government officials monitored the management and functioning of the state. The soldiers, members of the standing army, provided in-tuculescu and its protection against external enemies.
The bulk of the society were peasants-congregation. The rural community was the basic production unit of society and the basic unit of community was a big Patriarchal family. During the process of privatization appears wealth inequality and, consequently, dependent categories of the population. Dependence could be in the form of debt bondage or rent relations on the ground.
The cities were merchants and artisans. Craftsmen often fall into dependency, they find themselves a part of the state or temple management. Among traders are allocated a privileged stratum of merchants engaged in transit trade with other countries.
At the bottom observantines slaves. Source of slaves was, primarily, the capture of prisoners of war and only later debt slavery. As already mentioned, slavery was Patriarchal, slave was part of a large Patriarchal family.
In the East as an organizing structure of society has developed a system of corporations. Partly these corporations had already become known to social institutions (families, clans, communities) and partly new (castes, sects, guilds). Corporations in the East was a cohesive and organized group of people with its Charter and its norms of behavior that distinguish them from other corporations. The Corporation provided its members with certain guarantees of protection from arbitrariness, common in Eastern society. Man was closely involved in the life of a Corporation. The downside of this involvement played a role in the dissolution of man in the team. The man saw himself, first and foremost, as part of a team, not an individual, independent from others.
Through the Corporation to the state was easier to control the society. Government officials had to appeal to the head of the Corporation to achieve its goals.
India has an established structure of society, different from other ancient societies. Indian society consisted of Varnas and castes. About the four Varnas mentioned above.
Over time, the fourth, the lower the Varna of shudras was to raise their status, coming close to the status of Vaishya, which respectively lost part of its positions.
Varna Kshatriyas and Brahmans were at the top of Indian society. Between them was a constant struggle for power. The Brahmins relied on unquestioned religious authority. According to Brahmanism, the oldest Indian religion, the brahmanas occupy a higher social status than the Kshatriyas. In the end, this confrontation ended in favor of the brāhmaṇas. Kshatriyas attempt to replace the Brahmanism Buddhism and Jainism failed. Up to the present time in India is dominated by developed out of Brahmanism Hinduism.
According to the beliefs of the inhabitants of Ancient India, the people during the earthly life could not break away from his Varna. But, according to the law of karma, good and bad deeds will add up, and eventually people in the future could change his Varna at the best. If bad things prevailed, man was reborn into a Sudra or an animal. The law of karma has led to passivity of Indians in the social life, facilitating their concentration on moral improvement.
Over time, the system of Varnas became tougher and branched. Varna was divided into podezrely — caste. The whole society turned into a strict caste system. Flying into India, the conquerors found in this structure, specific location and joined it as a new caste. Below the caste system were the untouchables, are outside society and the law, any contact with them was prohibited.
Social structure of Ancient Greece. Greek Polis functioned as a state community. The backbone of the Polis were citizens — full members of the Polis. Citizens had rights and responsibilities in accordance with the laws of the Polis, and participated in its management and protection. All citizens depending on the wealth were divided into ranks according to which they were imposed property related responsibilities. The policy of guaranteed citizen rights, including, very importantly, the right to private property.
To underprivileged members of the policy were dependent peasants who lost their land, and foreigners. And they both had no right to participate in management policy because they do not own land. The foreigners, who were called mietek, there could be rich people, but Litice-ski rights not possessed.
Beli citizen policy enjoyed more freedom than the representative of the ancient Oriental society, slaves in Greece and Rome was in a worse position than in the East. Stable Oriental society, by and large, did not seek to intensify the exploitation of slaves. In Patriarchal bondage slave was the youngest member of the family.
In Greece, and then Rome and commodity-money relations and the economy, market-oriented, led to increased exploitation of slaves. Slaves were not considered as having any rights, and as a means of profit. The owner treated a slave as his property and could do with him what he wanted. The usual situation was that a slave sent to the mines, where he quickly died and was replaced by the new, bought on the slave market. In Roman Empire there was a special category of slaves who fought each other to entertain the citizens of Rome.
Greece was no powerful priestly stratum. The Greeks treated their gods not as in the East. The Greek gods were similar to humans, had advantages and disadvantages and between gods and men was not such a huge distance, as in the East.
Social structure of Ancient Rome. In Rome, unlike the Greek city-States, tribal remnants existed longer and had a stronger impact on public life. A Roman family — a classic example of a large Patriarchal family. The head of the family is completely disposed of in your home, could be executed, sold into slavery or to punish their relatives. He also served grace-ski functions at his home.
Roman citizens were called kwiatami. Original rights of citizenship possessed only patricians descendants of the first inhabitants of Rome. Plebeians are the descendants of ethnic German repatriates — was not involved in the political, social,
Noah and the religious life of the community, though were more numerous. After a long struggle, the plebeians forced the patricians to give them some rights. In the end, Roman society was divided into three estates: the nobility (nobles); riders (representatives of this estate at one time served in the cavalry); the plebeians. The nobility occupied a public office, the riders were merchants and financiers, the plebeians were direct producers. Plebeians could not seek election to public office.
The main occupation of the citizens in Rome, unlike Greece, was farming, not market-oriented. Citizens-farmers was the basis of the Roman army, prizewas to serve in case of war. Later, when the Romans could not simultaneously wage war throughout the Mediterranean and keep his farm,-the Roman army became a professional. Impoverished peasants were professional soldiers.
The number of Roman citizens was relatively small compared to the number of inhabitants of the conquered lands by Rome. Gradually the Romans were forced to divide conquered lands into several categories (provinces) by imposing a variety of taxes. The people of the provinces sought to become Roman citizens. As a rule, Roman citizenship was acquired through service in the Roman army. Over time, the provincial nobility gained great influence, and began to nominate their representatives from the Roman emperors. Finally, in 212 ad, all inhabitants of the Roman Empire received Roman citizenship.