The origins of the origin and development of Gothic in France
Northern France became the part of Europe, where Gothic was born. And it happened in the twelfth century. The flowering of this artistic style was received in the first half of the thirteenth century. The emergence of the Gothic was the formation of the city as a separate political and economic units. The inhabitants of these settlements there are new needs.
The Gothic style quickly evolved, due to the national rise, which has contributed to the process of unification of France. Centralized the Kingdom has got its own character, expressed in the construction of radically new stone cathedrals. They later became known as Gothic architecture.
The Cathedral in Beauvais is extremely high and strikes the eye interior, illuminated by the light coming from colored stained glass Windows. The same causes amazement and spacious Cathedral in Amiens .
Slender pillars, tall archways all contribute to the emergence of the desire to strive higher and higher. In the center there is the main light the nave . and on the sides darkened. These groups provide a picturesque combination of various architectural features. The art of the Gothic masters never ceases to amaze your imagination.
The facade is decorated with Lancet arches, and the architectural-plastic motives. This openwork Gables, turrets, curls, etc. On the consoles there are rows of statues that Zachatyevsky characters of Scripture.
The statues themselves are filled with inspired beauty. The sincerity and humanity of feeling – that is what animates the figures on the Gothic structures. By the way, the other parts of the buildings were decorated with statues that represented the different fantastic animals, for example, chimeras.
The end of XIII – beginning of XIV century, described the period of construction cathedrals in France as a crisis. Forms in architecture become dry land, began to decorate more statues give the same curve, an expression reminiscent of saccharine sycophants. While there are new artistic forms, the emergence of which was due to the growth of self-awareness of the burghers.
In other words, to know wanted somehow to leave behind a legacy for future generations. And that was reflected in the additions their own origin in the construction of buildings in those days.
From the XIV century, city churches and cathedrals in monasteries took on a greater significance as structures with equal height of the aisles. Also relevant steel Palace and castle chapel. The simplicity of their execution was complemented by the curvilinear patterns on the arches.
A typical example is the late Gothic Church of St-Maclou in Rouen, which was built in the period from 1434 by 1470. It was at this time there is a new pattern of window covers that represented the flames.
Later, instead begin to build castles and palaces. The sculpture on the temple facades have replaced the altar in the interior. The late-Gothic style is transformed, there is a new order of images of an emotional nature. Exalted the drama that started to build late Gothic style.
The development of the Gothic style in other European countries
In Germany, the Gothic has flourished in the gray of the thirteenth century. It is in this country very early hall-Church, like the Church of Elisabethkirche in Marburg . Were built brick cathedrals, volumes and designs which were simpler, you were using a patterned clutch.
In the Netherlands, the Gothic style was expressed in the magnificence of the towers of the cathedrals in Antwerp, built in the XVI century, and in Mechelen (XV – XVI century). Complex and rich decor was used in the construction of civil buildings.
England may have been the ancestor of the Gothic style, as it was here that the preconditions for its emergence. However, historical events gave impetus to the development of the Gothic, therefore, for many centuries this style in the country for a long time and originality was developed. Inside the buildings was the simplicity of the volumes . but outside was struck by the complexity of the patterns on the facade and arches.
Spain scored great in size the cathedrals, richly decorated facades and small Windows. A characteristic feature of Gothic architecture were large, vaulted halls, such as in the Cathedral at Gerona, the width of the nave which is 24 m.
Italian Gothic is also quite peculiar. Gothic elements included in the temples that were built in the Romanesque style, the Cathedral in Orvieto . This style of Gothic was developed in the construction of civil buildings, which are known under the name of the town halls.
Not only the architecture has undergone the action of the Gothic style. The sculpture becomes independent. The figures are depicted in three-dimensional design. It is on the facades of buildings housed the sculpture. Different stories and themes of the characters depended on the type of structure on which they were installed.
The sculpture becomes more realistic elements, you receive a personality in the image. The sculpture becomes something alive, as masters of their craft depicted in his works the psychological characteristics of the character.
An example is portraits of Naumburg Cathedral . Anatomical features of the figures used by sculptors to detail. And those saints are given human emotions.
Stained glass as an object the development of the Gothic style
Along with the sculpture develops the art associated with images on the glass. Painting of the Gothic style with its monumental features of the presented stained glass Windows . The window openings were larger, which was the basis of giving more original stained glass.
The number of colors that are used in the production of stained glass is increasing.
For images used a human form . If in the eleventh century, stained glass was just used as a window for illumination, then in XIII century it is considered the subject of decorating the interior of the building.
Gothic portrait miniature
Stained glass became a source of inspiration in this art as the creation of book miniatures. Not only religious publications artists had to illustrate, but and tutorials, as well as different secular literary masterpieces.
Book miniatures can be considered an achievement of the Gothic style. The classics gave way to realistic images. The most interesting can be considered the St. Louis Psalter and the Psalter of Queen Ingeborg. Both edition is dated XIII century.
Late Gothic also saw the further development of portrait miniatures. The acknowledged master of that time was Jean Fouquet . It is the XV century was a period when the image was reached the highest point of realism. Illustrations to become an independent tiny paintings.