The history of the treatment facilities and Sewerage
What is sewage? If we consider specifically, this underground channels, collected in the system, which are collected from the streets of rainwater and waste water of houses. Seems very simple, somewhat poetic and not at all interesting. However, the sewer system has a history.
The science of archeology helps us to learn how our ancestors lived than interested in how it worked, and, of course, how to get rid of waste. For example, during the excavations of the Greek city of Ephesus (present-day Turkey), near the Emperor’s Palace, shrines, temples, wealthy homes of the priests was found a public toilet! Its decoration was surprised by its richness and convenience. It was a high wall, behind which you can hide from prying eyes of passers-by. Here there was a urinal made of marble, and behind them was the groove-draining, lockable visor. It led to an underground reservoir, which, as you might guess, cleaned as necessary.
An ancient public toilet
The simplest water supply used in Ancient Egypt. The ancient Romans constructed more complex aqueducts, the remains of which, incidentally, is still functioning and used for the needs of a modern city.
Ancient Roman plumbing was tricky hydraulic system of aqueducts and pipes is simple. He was bellsouthnet and complicated because of the characteristics of the terrains in the place. The aqueduct is quite a massive structure, prokladyvaetsya through the tunnels, arched bridges and earth. In such aqueducts water flowed under gravity, if its source was higher than the consumption. However, it was not always so simple, so engineers invented ways of water flow and harder: used pipes of different diameters, installed the pump.
Ancient Roman plumbing was unduly complicated and extended the technical construction due to ignorance of engineers some of the laws of physics, it was located above the ground and held on its surface, often conducted in circumvention of the natural elevations, which significantly increased the length of the pipes, forced to build additional arched structures, use of pumps, etc.
Mesopotamia and China also had its own Sewerage and widely used the toilets, which differed from our modern, what seat they were made mainly from limestone or marble.
Alas, the era of antiquity fell under the invasion of the barbarians. The middle ages didn’t care about the cleanliness of the body, he was worried about the heart. The result is the flow of sewage in the streets, lice, rats, plague and cholera. Ordinary citizens were freed from the products of their vital functions is not surprising: the contents of chamber pots flew into the street just from the window, the slop is merged there, only out of doors. Medieval castles were equipped toilets on the balconies, the floors of which had a hole to drain sewage over the walls into the moats surrounding them.
The Enlightenment reacted to the needs of the body more favorably, however, the impetus for the development of sanitation became the cholera of 1830, which claimed so many human lives that the question about the cleanliness of city streets and personal hygiene of each acutely to governments of European countries.
In Russia, the first underground sewage canals were built in Moscow and Novgorod somewhere in the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, however, and stopped. By the twentieth century, the sewers could boast of only eleven cities of our vast country. Sprawling Moscow buried in dirt, but before the construction of canals not reach the hands. As a result, infectious diseases spread very rapidly, and in 1771, the third of the population died from the plague.
The development of sewage contributed to the growth of industry in the cities, where, along with a growing population, the need in the effluents of industrial wastes.
Different era brings different approaches to the construction of Sewerage systems, for the manufacture of pipes used as various materials: wood, metal, stone, and pipes are now made of concrete.
Central Sewerage for centuries coexisted with “local Sewerage system” in the form of cesspools. At present these pits successfully replaced by composting toilets. Attention consumers are offered electronic toilets and bidets with different functions to sustain hygiene and cleanliness at the highest level.
Treatment facilities operate in the modern world, not only with regard to the liberation of the city from dirt and infections, but also care about aesthetics and the natural environment.
The attitude to the natural human needs have significantly changed for the better, modesty in this matter is no longer acceptable. In many countries there are museums and monuments of sewers, and such serious organizations as the UN and UNESCO, noted in our calendars, world toilet day, having appointed him on November 19.