Secrets of the Gothic cathedrals of Fulcanelli
The school at Chartres was the most revered ancient philosophers, including Plato, Boethius and Macrobi. Christians called these thinkers auctores, that is, the authors or creators of sacred knowledge. In this constellation the brightest burning star Plato. Saint Augustine, extolling the superiority of the Platonists in theology, argued: “it is Obvious that the closest to our essence getting the Platonists”, because they “recognized the true God, as the Creator of all things, as the light source of the truth.” At the beginning of the twelfth century French theologian, Abelard wrote about Plato, as a pagan prophet: “He was the one through whom God so successfully opened the secret action of his divinity”.
From this point of view the most important ancient treatise was the work of Platon “timey”, which the scholars of Chartres dubbed “the color of the entire philosophy”. This work best suits the form and philosophy of Gothic architecture.For in “the Timaeus” contains emanation, numeric, and geometric scheme of creation, which has become a recognized model in the whole cosmology of the middle ages. In this dialogue, Plato describes in detail the creation and the world soul, or anima mundi, in the mathematical categories of reproduction and division of the soul-substance pomodorini intervals and proportions, with the subsequent reproduction of the elements through geometric shapes.
The postulate of Plato about divine proportionate, orderly space was accompanied by the belief that the visible physical world, the microcosm, is a reflection of a hidden world order, the macrocosm. Plato taught that the physical world has a secondary, changeable reality linked to the eternal unchanging order. He believed that the eternal Kingdom “should be based on eternal unchanging scheme, available to the mind and understanding; from which again it follows that the physical world is the likeness of some other world.” However, he expressed the following idea: since the microcosm, or an earthly Kingdom, an inexact reflection of the physical senses cannot easily and immediately perceive hidden macrocosmic order.
The scholars of Chartres believed that Plato and other auctores expressed their most wise thoughts through metaphors, myths and legends, just as Christ revealed the divine truth using parables. Metaphor, or fabula, was also associated with the hidden meaning of their treatises, as a visible, material world is associated with divine cosmic order. In those days it was believed that through reason, quadrive and understanding of the principles of harmony can be raised at involucra, or veil of matter and metaphors, and to behold the divine order. Such enlightenment would lead to the restoration of the divine nature of man, – the process that Plato called amnesis, or a regain divinity.
Therefore it is not surprising that the graduates of the school of Chartres had applied these principles in the construction of cathedrals. Creating divine works of art, erecting a building in accordance with the principles of the divine order and sacred geometry, churchmen and masons tried to imitate and serve the “divine Artisan”. By these means the builders of the cathedrals were impregnated their created from stone and glass work, these fabula and involucra, the divine harmony of proportions and numbers. Radiating these principles, councils can serve as a real transformative instrument, truly alchemical transformer of consciousness, leading the mind and soul to a fuller understanding and feeling of God. This view is an extension of the postulate of Plato, which says that contemplating the order and harmony of the universe, the soul will leave the ground and rise to the divine light. Thus, it is this philosophy and components quadrive abstract discipline can lead a person to harmony, which, according to Plato, “there is a thing invisible, incorporeal, perfect, divine.” Thus the geometry, “which is aimed at the perception of eternity”, can “draw the soul towards truth and create the spirit of philosophy, and raise the fact that currently, unfortunately, is in a fallen state”.
For thousands of years prior to the construction of cathedrals, even in Ancient Egypt, the geometry and the number of occupied a particularly high place in human culture, art and religion, and had a certain sanctity. For the medieval architect, geometry was just a means of communication with the workers. She ensured the accuracy and integrity of their work. At this level, geometry was practical, understandable and relatively simple science, as its main tools – compass, ruler, compass and measuring string. However, at a higher level, using the geometry of the philosophical and theological ideas were translated into concrete form of grace and beauty.
The laws of geometry was permeated the entire structure of the Cathedral – from the small details of portal and window to huge, reared up, arches. Here’s one early example: the basic rule for the construction of churches were of small size using the proportion of v2 is the thickness of the walls corresponds to the width of the internal space in the ratio v2:1. To conduct such measurements can be very easy, drawing inside the walls of the nave a square (which took 1) and circling the squared circle. Parts of the circle, caught outside the square, was estimated 2 and determined the width of the walls.
As growing the complexity of the structure and size of the churches, of geometric rules further went beyond the simple proportions of v2. Gothic cathedrals, which, usually, are built over generations, often bore the signs of a different style of architects. But certain principles remain constant.
The Golden ratio, also known as the Golden ratio or Golden mean, was one of the most important and widespread geometric formulas used in the construction of cathedrals. This rule is derived from a geometrically of a rectangle with the proportions 1 to 2, a scientists from Chartres and builders of churches learned his geometry from Euclid. Further it is expressed as follows: a: b: b(a + b) or 1 + v5 / 2 or 1.618… and is denoted by the Greek letter f.
The Golden proportion was particularly important for Christian theology because it refers to a three-element theorem, constructed of two elements “corresponds to the first mystery of the Holy Trinity: three, two”. One way of applying the Golden ratio shown in the figure below, where the pentagonal shape superimposed on a vertical section of the type of the Cologne Cathedral, where the width of the nave and columns is determined by the interlinked pentagrams and circles (see figure).
Two figures of the drawing below show how the Golden section can be applied to the standard floor plans of Gothic churches, pentagonal, and decimal. Any such control division of the circle by 5, 10 or 20 parts introduces the elements the proportion of “Golden section” (see figure).
The number 5 has special significance for emblematics (five levels of its form, its five senses, the power of the mind). In the opinion of the Platonists and scholastics this is the figure distinguishes man from all other creatures. Ideally, the five senses were simple servants of the human capacity for thinking; together they can lead to divine awareness and understanding, discovering the divine proportion, embodies the mind of God. (In the middle ages the word “mind” was designated by the Latin word ratio, which is very significant.) (English ratio – proportion). Five was the number of Christ, who was perfect man in virtue of his divine intelligence, wisdom, and love. Christ was known as “people born (=4) and sanctified (=1)… material 4, plus 1 whole.” The number 3 was also sacred number of Christ, as a member of the Holy Trinity. It has been suggested that these symbolic numbers were used in the original ground plan of the Cathedral in Chartres, where the Cathedral is, the axis of Christ, divided into a fifth fraction, a number 3 and 5 are used to determine different elements of the building along the Central nave.