Mostinskii maze Voronezh
In the study of ideology and social structure of ancient tribes of the don of unexpected results in recent years brought to the farm on Mastime Ostrogozhsk district has implemented.
If you climb the middle of three high promontories of chalk, semicircle hanging over the farm, and turn to face him, eyes open rare complication geographic panorama of the valley formed by the merging of the floodplains of three rivers: the Potudan, the Girls and don. From here in clear weather can be seen to the North open space for tens of kilometers! Almost equally broad view of the area in the Western and Eastern side. The place is amazing, allowing control of a large district with excellent pasture, hunting and fishing grounds, as well as with waterways in all directions.
Could not rate this place and our ancestors. A striking proof of this are the remains of defensive fortifications Scythian time on two capes. And whether will be found here signs of human habitation in the more ancient period? It is towards this end excavations were undertaken at the Central (Mastime 1) and Northwest (Mastime 2) capes. And our expectations were met. The first of the monuments, along with the usual Scythian period discoveries began to come across the wreckage of the vessels ivanovoiskozh type and catacomb culture (as we already know, to a certain extent, synchronous). Immediately attracted the attention of the Cretaceous rocks, which turned out to be nessingwary layer. The fact that the settlements are neither the bronze age nor Scythian time on Average, don building stone is still not met.
Excavations began careful: each stone needed to be kept in place. And finally the upper area of the Cape is released from soil layers, and the background of the continent boldly made the ruins of the stone masonry! Masonry has survived only in fragments, they were repeatedly destroyed and in the bronze age and early iron age.
And yet irrefutable argument in favor of the ancient age design managed to get. Excavations on the neighbouring promontory, too, were found the remains of stone masonry (although not circular, as in Mastime 1, and rectangular). They were accompanied by fragments of ivanovoiskozh and catacomb of vessels I. a single shard a later time!
Now we have the evidence to link the remains of stone structures of monuments with both Ivanovichem population (III—II millennia BC and later).
Since the excavations were completed recently and a lot of work ahead on understanding their results, we only in the most General terms, let’s imagine the construction of the site of Mastema 1 (Fig. 40). It includes a round Central platform of stone vygostky and six surrounding concentric circles / ellipses, between which in some cases fixed bridges. And the rings and crosspieces are made of stones, laid without special adjustment and without any binder solution. Maximum height in ancient times did not exceed half a meter; the larger the diameter of the outer ring along the line West — East reaches 40 meters. Once again the reservation that have survived only the ruins of buildings, which in its original form was more complicated architecture and system. But what has been preserved, leaves no doubt: this is the remains of a “megalithic” buildings of religious purpose. It can be called a sanctuary, a maze.
In the scientific world widely known megalithic structures — the Grand monuments of the past, scattered along the European coast of the Atlantic ocean and the Mediterranean sea. Megaliths are large carved stones weighing several tons. They are often placed at the end or dig in the form of heavy pillars, and the top was held together by imposing the same blocks. The megaliths used in the construction of structures of various shapes, including annular and in the form of ellipses. For the same purpose used stones and much smaller. Age of structures — from four thousand years or more, and some built long before the pyramids of Egypt!
Malyshevskogo ruins of the labyrinth (the dots are location of stones of red granite).
Special attracted the attention of scientists for many years, the stone ring of Stonehenge in southern England. About this monument written many books, but study of his designs hidden and it continues to this day. Scientists were able to establish that such monuments were used as tombs, but they also have symbolic significance: here was the administration of various religious rites, the collection of widely scattered communities from adjacent areas. Finally, the Stonehenge was not only a sanctuary for ritual ceremonies, but also a huge astronomical Observatory, which might have allowed prediction of solar and lunar eclipses!
Readers may ask, what are the similarities between Stonehenge and are very modest in size, Wt-tishinskii clutches?
Indeed, external comparison is not in favor of the latter. But if you do not take into account the size and architectural techniques, and to draw attention to the semantic purpose of the don facilities, will we see similar signs? Malishanski because the maze is not an industrial building or housing. In the maze was found only a few instances of blood vessels and bone residues and no evidence of production of tools and household utensils, nor remains of dwellings or utility pits. It is excavated on the area of the monument is more than 2000 square meters! A monument, strictly speaking, was not the residence of the ancient people, i.e. the settlement. Finds of vessels, and bones of animals and fish quite match the places of ritual ceremonies. Facilities in the form known as the stone labyrinths on the White sea coast of our country, and in some Northern European countries (Finland, Sweden, Denmark, etc.). Some of them, differing from don by their smaller size, techniques of stone masonry and separate konstruktivnye parts, similar to the presence of concentric circles. But, as established, Northern labyrinths reflect the same ideas, which encouraged the construction of megalithic rings! Now there is little doubt in the cult purpose of the labyrinths: they certainly were sanctuaries. However, in complex structures Mytishinsky no traces of tombs, but it may be somewhere nearby and it provided the usual don Chalcolithic ritual space remains in the soil.
So, for the first time for such an early time (the turn of the III and II millennia BC) in Central Russia opened the sanctuary in the form of a stone labyrinth, reflecting a pan-European ideology of the period of construction of megalithic structures. What is the specific content of this ideology, what are its outgoing links is a question that will probably be solved only in the future.
Don maze could be the centre of a wide district, where he carried out important social events.
Therefore, the idea behind the construction of such facilities, were spread much wider than thought until now. Besides, the question is: do all of the sanctuary were made of stone? Could be that with the scarcity of its reserves (and what distinguishes our region) of the sanctuary were made of sod or loose earth, discover them today is almost impossible.
Finally, could don the maze to combine the functions of the sanctuary and of the device for observing heavenly bodies? We do not exclude a positive response, but still need more research. Our optimism is based on the fact that it is time to decisively reject the prevailing historical prejudices and to overestimate in favor of the ancient societies their creative potential. This fully applies to the bronze age.