Gothic cathedrals of France
C) Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
G) Cathedral in Amanjena.
D) the Cathedral at Reims.
E) Cathedral in Laon.
4. The list of references.
The name “Gothic art” (from Italian. gotico — “Gothic”, the name of a Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. “Gothic” in those days meant “barbarian” in contrast to “Roman”: the Gothic was called art that did not follow the ancient traditions, and therefore, had no interest for his contemporaries. This view had changed only in the XIX century when the middle Ages was no longer considered the “dark ages” in the history of mankind. However, the name “Gothic” was preserved for the European art of the late middle Ages. In various European countries, the Gothic style had its own characteristics and time frame, but it flourished in the XIII—XIV centuries In the history of art, it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late (“flamboyant”) Gothic
Gothic developed in countries dominated by the Catholic Church, and under the auspices of the feudal and ecclesiastical foundations remained in the ideology and culture of the Gothic era. Gothic art remained primarily a cult for the intended purpose and religious topics: it was correlated with eternity, with “higher” irrational forces.
Gothic rose gradually from romanschools rendering it almost invisible innovations. She was born in Northern France (Ile-de-France) in the mid-12th century and flourished in the first half of the 13th century
In Gothic France organically intertwined lyricism and tragic affects, sublime spirituality and social satire. Turn to the Gothic style began with architecture, and only then began to spread to sculpture and painting
Thirty years of the XII century were a time of rapid growth of French culture. The face of France changed greatly. Many churches burned down, but in their place new ones are being built.
It was during this era when confronted different views could arise in Gothic art with the richness of his images, constrained by the single dogma of the Catholic Church. During this time did not stop communication with Byzantium. It is XIII century, preserved the most perfect monuments of Gothic architecture, gradually reborn fueled by new aesthetic ideals of the Gothic forms continue to live up to the beginning of the XIV century.
The pursuit of beauty indicating the freshness of the senses and intelligence is always a characteristic of the era of the rise of high culture, it is inherent in Gothic art up to the end of the XIII century. its Highest expression was the Gothic Church, with its unity of architectural images which included both plastic and pictorial decoration.
Unlike the Romanesque period centers of European religious, cultural, political and economic life by the end of XII century were not monasteries, and the city’s Main public building of the medieval city, its Cathedral, designed not only for worship but also for meetings of the local community. Cathedrals were supposed to hold all of the numerous urban population. Before the churches were made by the preachers, held discussions with Professor and students. Arranged here and theatrical religious performances. They built cathedrals urban wizard (and not the monastery, as before). The citizens themselves were often the customers or creators of works of art for decoration of cathedrals.
Which became a Metropolitan municipality architecture of cathedrals embodied the essential features of medieval ideology, the theological ideas of the grandeur and harmony of the universe, social organization (hierarchical structure of society). Rising high above the roofs of conventional buildings the imposing stone cathedrals, decorated with lace near-gem carving, was the most important and the most prominent creature of the Gothic (which many researchers think the national French style). It is the fruit of sophisticated human mind, and inspired creativity of gifted artists, and at the same time and long, sometimes two-three-centuries-old labor and self-sacrifice of the people obsessed by the idea of atonement of sin through the earthly service of God
. The artistic perfection of the Gothic structures is impossible without great quality works performed in workshops organized builders-professionals. Impressive integrity inherent in those buildings where the original plan significantly changed in the construction process, the subtleties of elaborate structure would be unattainable without new faces — who led the construction of a master Mason, for the most part remained unknown, and only here and there a named among the patterns of decoration, the so-called labyrinth on the stone floor of the Cathedral or depicted in sculpture
Building materials and main types of buildings.
Going deep 100—120m interior space, raised at the unfathomable height of the arches (in Paris, Reims, and Amiens cathedrals respectively 32.5, 42,5 and 38 m), the proportions of the nave, the height of which exceeds the width of 2.8—3 times), slimness, slenderness all visible to the viewer structural elements give rise to a striking dynamic impression upwards. Twilight, iridescent colorful reflections of the environment seems unreal, as if filled with the mystery of the divine presence. In contrast to the Turn to the Gothic style began with architecture, and only then began to spread to sculpture and painting. Architecture has consistently been the Foundation of the medieval synthesis of the arts. If you compare the typical structures of Romanesque and Gothic, it seems that they are opposite. Some representatives of massiveness, others lightness.
The idea of the architects is to enhance and facilitate a system of arches. Solid rib arches are replaced with floors – the system of bearing arches. All lightness, all the fabulous Gothic buildings has a rational basis: it follows from the timber frame system of construction. So appear through galleries, arcades, huge Windows. Galleries are used for installation of the statues and Windows for monumental paintings of colored glass.
In Gothic architecture in General different periods: early — Mature V. 12 — V. 13— 1st floor. 14th century and late — 2nd floor. V. 14— V. 15 (in the literature, there exists another periodization). The development of Gothic forms begins with the selection of cross vaults of carrier and ribs lightweight spandrel. that gave an opportunity to cover areas of any shape (eg. apse, the circular rounds), dividing them in terms of triangles, delineated by the edges of the vaulting ribs, as well as reduce the size, and hence the thickness of each Stripping
The Foundation of Romanesque Church building served as a stone mass. This mass, with its thick, thick walls are supported and balanced by supporting arches, pillars and other architectural details, carrying out supporting functions. For greater stability of the building is Romanesque, the architect increased the thickness and strength of the wall, on which was concentrated the main attention. It is the improvement of the support system was destined to produce a true revolution in contemporary architecture.
The establishment of the high cross vaults on pointed edges, or ribs taking the brunt of the overlap, the increase in the number of ribs emerging from each pillar formed by the beam columns, the introduction of so-called flying buttresses— polaron, transferring the pressure of the upper walls of the middle nave continue up to the mighty external columns— buttresses lateral naves that functions as the opposing forces are so enriching the support system that she has acquired an independent significance. This was the perfect revolution.