Gothic art and architecture
Replaced Romanesque as the style of the prosperity of the cities and improvement of social relations came a new style – Gothic. In this style were performed in religious and secular buildings, sculpture, stained glass, illuminated manuscripts and other works of figurative art during the second half of the middle ages.
Gothic art originated in France around 1140 years had spread across Europe in the next century and continued to exist in Western Europe during most of the fifteenth century, and some parts of Europe and in the XVI century. The original but the word Gothic was used by Italian authors R-ing as a pejorative label for all forms of architecture and IP-art of the middle ages, which was considered to be comparable only with the works of barbarian Goths. Later the term “Gothic” was limited to the period of late, high or classical the middle ages, immediately following the Romanesque. Currently the Gothic period is considered to be one of the greatest in the history of European art and culture.
The main representative and exponent of goticheskie-ode was the architecture.
Although a huge number of Gothic monuments were secular, Gothic style served primarily the Church, the most powerful Builder in the middle ages, which provided the development of this new for that time, architecture and reached its full-Shea implementation.
Aesthetical qualities of Gothic architecture depend on a structural development: the ribbed vaults are characteristic prizna-commercial Gothic style.
The medieval Church had a powerful stone star vaults, which were very heavy. They sought to shore, push out the walls. This could lead to the collapse of the building. Therefore, the wall must be sufficiently thick and heavy to keep these vaults. In the beginning of the twelfth century, masons developed the child-ristie vaults that include slender stone arches, RAS-laid diagonally, transversely and longitudinally. The new vault, which was thinner, lighter and more versatile (as it could have a lot of hundred-Ron), has allowed to solve many architectural problems. Although the early-Gothic Church was allowed a wide variation of forms, magni-Denia series of large cathedrals in Northern France that began in the second half of the twelfth century, was fully used the advantages of the new Gothic vault. The architects of the cathedrals found that now the external arching effort from the vaulting are concentrated in narrow regions at the junctions of the ribs (ribs), and therefore they can be easily neutralized with the help of buttresses and external arches-flying buttresses.
Consequently, the thick walls of Romanesque architecture could be replaced by a more subtle, involving extensive window openings, and the interior has been unprecedented until then the light. In the construction so there was a real revolution.
With the advent of the Gothic arch has changed as the design, shape, layout and interiors of cathedrals. Gothic cathedrals acquired the common character of lightness, of striving upward, have become much more dynamic and expressive. The first of the great cathedrals was the Cathedral of Notre Dame (begun in 1163). In 1194 was laid in the Cathedral of Chartres, considered to be the beginning of a period of highly hot Gothic. The culmination of this era was the Cathedral at Reims (begun 1210). Rather cold and overpowering in its exactly balanced proportions, Reims Cathedral is a classic moment of peace and serenity in the evolution of Gothic cathedrals. Openwork partitions, a characteristic feature of late Gothic architecture, was the invention of the first architect of Reims Cathedral. Entirely new interior solutions have been found by the author of the Cathedral at Bourges (begun in 1195). The influence of the French Gothic style quickly spread all over Europe: Spain, Germany, Eng-Leah. In Italy it was not so strong.
Sculpture. Following Roman tradition, in numerous niches on the facade of French Gothic cathedrals were housed in the ka-quality jewelry a huge number of carved stone figures personifying the tenets and beliefs of the Catholic Church. Goticas-Kai sculpture in the twelfth and early thirteenth century was, by its nature, pre-architectural property. The largest and most important Fi góra was located in the openings on both sides of the entrance. Because they were attached to the columns, they were known as the statue of the co-lonna. Along with the statues-columns have been widely distributed free-standing monumental statues, the art form, UN-tion in Western Europe since Roman times. The earliest surviving statue-columns in the Western portal Chartres Cathedral. They were still in the old pre-Gothic Cathedral and date from about 1155. Slender, cylindrical shape follows the form of the co-lonn to which they were attached. They are made in a cold, severe, linear Romanesque style that nevertheless lends the Fi-Guram impressive purposeful spirituality.
With 1180 the Romanesque styling starts to move into a new, when the statues become the feeling of grace, sinuosity, and freedom of movement. This so-called classical style reaches culmi-nation in the first decades of the XIII century in large series of sculptures on the portals of the North and South transepts of Chartres Cathedral.
The appearance of naturalism. Since about 1210 on the Coronation portal of Notre Dame Cathedral after 1225 and the first, Yes on the Western portal of Amiens Cathedral, producing the impression of ripples, the classic features of the surfaces of PA-ut to give way to more rigorous amounts. The statues of the Cathedral of Reims and in the interior of the Cathedral Saint-Chapel exaggerated smile, almond-shaped eyes emphasized arranged in tufts on small heads curls and mannered poses of paradox produce a greasy impression of synthesis of naturalistic forms, delicate affectation and subtle spirituality.