The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that, “despite the efforts of generations of scientists, the dolmens are still understudied monuments” (markovin V. I.). The dolmens are of great practical (for tourism development), and scientific interest. Although for most of us as residents of the far Eastern region, a special attraction are the dolmens of the Far East, in Russia the greatest interest to us are the dolmens of the Western Caucasus, as the most numerous izuchennye.
When considering the topic of Korean dolmens we used the textbook “Archaeology abroad Asia”, historical and archaeological sketch of the “Ancient Korea” M. V. Vorobyeva and a number of articles. The problem of the existence of dolmens in Primorye, for many experts and ordinary people, has virtually no literature. The only exception is the article by D. L. Brodskogo and A. A. Krupenko “do the dolmens in Primorye”.
Following consideration of the literature, we can formulate the aim of our study is to examine the classification and chronology of dolmens (on the example of the monuments of the Western Caucasus and Korea). Accordingly, the research problem can be formulated as follows: – to study the classification and chronology of the dolmens of the Western Caucasus, is to study the classification and chronology of dolmens in Korea, is to consider the problem of dolmens in Primorye.
While we do not intend in this study, the problem of comparison of Korean and Western Caucasian dolmens, because it does not allow the volume of work.
CHAPTER 1. DOLMENS IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE MEGALITHS. CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOLMENS OF THE WESTERN CAUCASUS.
1.1. The megaliths. Classification of the megaliths.
Megaliths or megalithic monuments (from the Greek. μέγας — large, λίθος — stone) constructions of large stone slabs or blocks, connected without the use of cement or lime mortar. Megalithic structures belong to the Neolithic, bronze, and partly of later eras. 1 In the past they served as either tombs or monuments, or shrines, and these different types partly into one another. 2 Megalithic monuments are especially numerous and diverse in Brittany, where they earlier than in other districts, drew the attention of scientists; and therefore, to identify these monuments are consumed by the title, borrowed from the Breton language, namely the menhirs (men – stone, gir -long, high); dolmen (dol – table, men – stone); a cromlech (crom – circle).
The term “megaliths” is not strictly scientific, therefore under the definition of megaliths and megalithic structures are subject to the rather vague group of buildings. In particular, the megaliths called the hewn stones of large dimensions, including those not used for the construction of tombs and monuments. In the limiting case that one module (menhir), for which it is difficult to talk about ways of connecting blocks.
Megaliths are prevalent worldwide mainly in coastal areas. In Europe they mostly date back to the Eneolithic and bronze age (3rd — 2nd Millennium BC), with the exception of the British Isles, Portugal and France, where the megaliths belong to the Neolithic period. Megalithic monuments are especially numerous and diverse in Brittany. Also a large number of megaliths found on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, Portugal, parts of France, on the West coast of England, in Ireland and Denmark, on the South coast of Sweden and in Israel.
In Russia megalithic structures were selectively studied, systematic studies of them were not, owing to the different nature of monuments and the vastness. The most famous megalithic structures in Russia: dolmens in the Caucasus, dolerophanite mausoleums of Karachay-Cherkessia, menhirs, Karachay-Cherkessia, deer stones, menhirs and stone boxes Khakassia, menhirs and alignments of menhirs of the Urals, the gallery building (near Miass), seids from the Leningrad region to the Kola Peninsula labyrinths of European North. most likely, the dolmens, the largest concentration of them is marked on the territory of the Western Caucasus.
There are following types of megaliths.
a menhir is a single standing stone vertically up to 20 m tall;
the cromlech is a group of menhirs forming a circle or a semicircle;
taula — stone structure in the shape of the letter “T”;