Replaced Romanesque as the style of the prosperity of the cities and improvement of social relations came a new style – Gothic. In this style were performed in religious and secular buildings, sculpture, stained glass, illuminated manuscripts and other works of figurative art during the second half of the middle ages.
Gothic art originated in France around 1140 years had spread across Europe in the next century and continued to exist in Western Europe during most of the fifteenth century, and some parts of Europe and in the XVI century. The original but the word Gothic was used by Italian authors R-ing as a pejorative label for all forms of architecture and IP-art of the middle ages, which was considered to be comparable only with the works of barbarian Goths. Later the term “Gothic” was limited to the period of late, high or classical the middle ages, immediately following the Romanesque. Currently the Gothic period is considered to be one of the greatest in the history of European art and culture.
The main representative and exponent of goticheskie-ode was the architecture.
Although a huge number of Gothic monuments were secular, Gothic style served primarily the Church, the most powerful Builder in the middle ages, which provided the development of this new for that time, architecture and reached its full-Shea implementation. Continue reading
Mezzanine (it. mezzanino – house)
The upper or superstructure over the Central part of a house. Often has a balcony. In the XIX century, became widespread in low-rise construction in Russia.
Megalithic constructions, megaliths (gr. megas – great, lithos – stone)
Archaeological monuments, built of blocks of wild or grubovato stone. Megaliths belong to the menhirs – the vertically dug stone pillars; CROMLECHS – stone alleys; DOLMENS – tombs, stone boxes, covered galleries. Megalithic constructions are widely spread in different countries of the world, in particular, in Siberia, in the Ukraine, in Crimea, in particular in the Caucasus, where there are all kinds of megalithic structures. Continue reading
To refer to a mosaic of painted window glass, called stained glass Windows we have, in European languages there is no single form and definite content to the term. When naming these works (for example: stained glass windows, painted glass in English; Glasgemalde – in German) descriptive concepts are not accidental. Their meaning indicates that the production of stained glass as an independent type of decorative art appeared in relatively recent historical time. And only the French term “vitrail”, and from which comes our name “stained glass”, is based on the Latin word “vitrum”, pointing to the history of this art form.
The first information about the use of glass in the decoration of public buildings we find in the treatise of Pliny the Elder “Naturalis historia”. Detail in the short history of the art of making pavimento (typesetting sexes, which are based on paintings), Pliny notes that in his day, that is not earlier than the last quarter of the first century BC “driven out of the land pavimenti moved to the vaults of glass”. Later in the literature there are only a few mentions of using coloured glass in window frames. They belong to the IV-VII centuries and come from Byzantium. Continue reading
What is sewage? If we consider specifically, this underground channels, collected in the system, which are collected from the streets of rainwater and waste water of houses. Seems very simple, somewhat poetic and not at all interesting. However, the sewer system has a history.
The science of archeology helps us to learn how our ancestors lived than interested in how it worked, and, of course, how to get rid of waste. For example, during the excavations of the Greek city of Ephesus (present-day Turkey), near the Emperor’s Palace, shrines, temples, wealthy homes of the priests was found a public toilet! Its decoration was surprised by its richness and convenience. It was a high wall, behind which you can hide from prying eyes of passers-by. Here there was a urinal made of marble, and behind them was the groove-draining, lockable visor. It led to an underground reservoir, which, as you might guess, cleaned as necessary. Continue reading
18 engravings depicting views, section views, and architectural details of one of the most famous Gothic cathedrals, the Cathedral of Cologne, Germany. Also on the engraving depicts the stained glass Windows of the Cathedral and on the two engravings depict other cathedrals in comparison with Cologne Cathedral. The author of the engravings of the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who together with architect Ernst Friedrich Zwirner supervised the completion of the Cathedral in 1841 (see historical background below). Today the Cathedral is the landmark of Cologne and is a UNESCO world heritage site
Historical background: the Construction of the Cathedral was begun in 1248, when the Archbishop of Cologne Konrad von Hochstaden laid the first Foundation stone of the Cologne Cathedral. The Cathedral was to emphasize the power of Cologne – one of the richest and most powerful cities of the German Empire at that time. Continue reading